Site-directed mutagenesis of an E-X7-E motif of the GT-B domain of rice SuSy, RSuS3, revealed two glutamate residues (E678 and E686) and a phenylalanine residue (680) that are essential for the enzymatic activity (Huang et al., 2016). J. Biol. Biotechnol. A cell wall-associated SuSy was also observed in tobacco pollen tubes using immunolocalization (Persia et al., 2008). doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00045-0. 18, 139–142. Strawberry fruits with RNAi suppression of FaSUS1 by virus-induced gene-silencing exhibited delayed fruit ripening, maintained their firmness and exhibited delayed anthocyanin accumulation (Zhao et al., 2017). Genomes 7, 443–456. Indeed, overexpression of Arabidopsis SUS in tobacco results in increased leaf starch (Bahaji et al., 2011; Nguyen et al., 2016). (2009). Sucrose synthase of soybean nodules. Maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter directs phloem cell-specific expression of GUS gene in transgenic tobacco plants. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01002.x, Regmi, K. C., Zhang, S., and Gaxiola, R. A. 1). Suc can be hydrolyzed in the apoplast by cwINV to yield Glc and Fru, which can be brought into the cell by a monosaccharide transporter. Takeda, H., Niikura, M., Narumi, A., Aoki, H., Sasaki, T., and Shimada, H. (2017). 4, 113–117. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msw054, Kumutha, D., Sairam, R. K., Ezhilmathi, K., Chinnusamy, V., and Meena, R. C. (2008). (2012). Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›. Plant 5, 430–441. (1999). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120669, Werr, W., Frommer, W. B., Maas, C., and Starlinger, P. (1985). Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays a key role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. 94, 461–472. B., and Korir, N. K. (2015). Expression of sucrose synthase genes involved in enhanced elongation of pondweed (Potamogeton distinctus) turions under anoxia. BMC Genomics 14:314. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-314, Zhao, C., Hua, L. N., Liu, X. F., Li, Y. It would be very interesting to see whether the proposed roles of the cell wall SuSy in cellulose and callose synthesis could be observed in transgenic cotton plants with SusC suppression or overexpression. Suc can be converted into starch via different pathways, which also differ between chloroplasts and heterotrophic tissues (For a comprehensive review of starch synthesis, see Bahaji et al., 2014b). 33, 1870–1874. doi: 10.1080/17429140902898429, Yu, W. P., Wang, A. Y., Juang, R. H., Sung, H. Y., and Su, J. C. (1992). Plant Physiol. Glucose and mannose regulate the expression of a major sucrose synthase gene in Arabidopsis via hexokinase-dependent mechanisms. Plant responses to hypoxia - is survival a balancing act? Work with promoter-GUS fusions has revealed SUS promoter activity in the phloem of many plant species, including potato (Fu and Park, 1995), Arabidopsis (Martin et al., 1993; Bieniawska et al., 2007), maize (Yang and Russell, 1990), rice (Shi et al., 1994), tomato (Goren et al., 2017) and Craterostigma plantagineum (Kleines et al., 1999). doi: 10.1007/s12041-015-0558-1, Li, J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Bahaji, A., Munoz, F. J., Ovecka, M., Montero, M., et al. The possible role of SuSy in metabolism under reduced-oxygen conditions is further supported by the findings of studies with SUS mutants and transgenic plants. F1,6BP is then further metabolized to yield other hexose phosphates, such as fructose 6-phophate (F6P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). In others, such as grapes and pears, fructose is the main sugar. The main genetic evidence supporting this claim is that the plastidic PGI, PGM and AGPase mutants, and plants with reduced expression of these genes are either starchless or contain very low levels of starch in their leaves (Bahaji et al., 2014b). Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Acad. Plant Cell Physiol. Plant Mol. The SusC sequence has a truncated N-terminus and a C-terminus that is different from that of the other cotton SuSy isoforms, and the mechanism by which it is localized to the cell wall remains unclear (Brill et al., 2011). Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure. Our phylogenetic tree (Figure 2) groups all of gymnosperm SuSy amino acid sequences together in two branches (marked by a green arc); whereas the angiosperm SuSy amino acid sequences are divided among three clades, SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of seven sucrose synthase genes in bamboo (Bambusa emeiensis): investigation of possible roles in the regulation of cellulose biosynthesis and response to hormones. 32, 87–106. For example, a reduction in SuSy activity reduced starch content in potato tubers, carrot taproots and maize endosperm (Chourey and Nelson, 1976; Zrenner et al., 1995; Tang and Sturm, 1999). Wounding, anoxia and cold induce sugarbeet sucrose synthase transcriptional changes that are unrelated to protein expression and activity. The co-localization of SuSy, callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco pollen tubes further supports the enzyme’s dual role in callose and cellulose synthesis (Cai et al., 2011). Analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in tobacco: structure, phylogeny, and expression patterns. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100312, Li, F., Hao, C., Yan, L., Wu, B., Qin, X., Lai, J., et al. In addition, five maize starch-deficient endosperm mutants were screened for metabolic enzyme activity and all showed reduced SuSy activity (Doehlert and Kuo, 1990). Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2005.00160.x, Coleman, H. D., Yan, J., and Mansfield, S. D. (2009). 49, 1621–1626. SuSy is also the main enzyme metabolizing Suc in the phloem of Ricinus communis (Geigenberger et al., 1993). (2016)]. 9, 100–101. 281, 291–305. (2013). doi: 10.1626/pps.11.67, Geigenberger, P., Langenberger, S., Wilke, I., Heineke, D., Heldt, H. W., and Stitt, M. (1993). doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81212-1, Munoz, F. J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Moran-Zorzano, M. T., Viale, A. M., Etxeberria, E., Alonso-Casajus, N., et al. 92, 990–994. Plant J. Plant. Evol. doi: 10.1111/pce.12363, Schaffer, A. This chemical reaction is best described by the formula CO2+H2O+energy -> sugar + O2. SuSy proteins are usually homotetramers with an average monomeric molecular weight of about 90 kD (about 800 amino acids long). Sucrose is converted into glucose and fructose by the enzyme 8.0k + In another transgenic tomato with reduced SUS expression only in fruits, there were no reported effects on fruit development or the accumulation of starch and sugar in young green fruit, challenging the suggested importance of SuSy for sink strength (Chengappa et al., 1999). ): structure, expression, and evolution. 81, 175–181. In Arabidopsis, AtSUS5 and AtSUS6 are reported to be phloem specific (Barratt et al., 2009). Quantitative PCR analysis found the highest expression levels of SUS2 in a poplar hybrid (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) in the xylem and phloem; those levels were 4-fold and 3-fold higher than the expression levels in the cambium, respectively (Wei et al., 2015). Sci. Sci. 40, 907–911. In transgenic tomato plant with antisense suppression of SUS, reduced Suc import was observed only in very young fruits (7 days after anthesis) and not during the later starch-accumulation phase (23 DAA; D’Aoust et al., 1999). Plant Growth Regul. (2013). The first site is a serine phosphorylation site at position 11 to 15, which is thought to play a role in membrane association (see section “ Subcellular Localization of SuSy”). FEBS Lett. The signal metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate inhibits the sucrolytic activity of sucrose synthase from developing castor beans. doi: 10.1111/febs.12595, Xu, F., and Joshi, C. (2010). Because Suc cleavage by SuSy yields UDP-G, which is a direct substrate for both cellulose (β1-4) and callose (β1-3) glucans, it is widely assumed that SuSy plays a role in the synthesis of both of these polysaccharides. doi: 10.1007/BF00018465, Chourey, P. S., and Nelson, O. E. (1976). Another potential heat-tolerant SuSy was purified from a heat-tolerant line of wheat (WH-1021). J. (2014). 78, 149–154. |, Roles of SuSy in Cellulose and Callose Metabolism, Role of SuSy in the Shoot Apical Meristem, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.00095/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel. (2018). (1998). (2012). Although overexpression of cotton SUS in tobacco plants did not affect cellulose content (Coleman et al., 2006), its overexpression in poplar trees did increase their cellulose content, as well as cell-wall thickness and wood density (Coleman et al., 2009). doi: 10.1104/pp.64.1.31, Nolte, K. D., and Koch, K. E. (1993). doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.275974, Zhu, X., Wang, M., Li, X., Jiu, S., Wang, C., and Fang, J. (2014). 96, 683–692. Proc. In Arabidopsis, AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 mutants had altered metabolism and accumulated less transient starch during seed development, with no effect on agronomic traits like seed weight and oil content (Angeles-Nunez and Tiessen, 2010). 286, 36108–36118. Plant Cell 7, 1369–1385. Biotechnol. ), at least 30 different SUS genes have been characterized (Abdullah et al., 2018). The cloning, genetic mapping, and expression of the constitutive sucrose synthase locus of maize. Gen. Genet. To summarize, plant SuSy activity has been shown to play important roles in plant sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. 104, 535–540. In Arabidopsis, six SUS genes have been characterized (Baud et al., 2004), similarly, six SUS genes have been identified in each of the following species: rice (Hirose et al., 2008), tomato (Goren et al., 2017), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) (Xiao et al., 2014), cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) (Li et al., 2015), peach (Prunus persica) (Zhang et al., 2015) and Nicotiana sylvestris (Wang et al., 2015). Biol. 120, 1105–1116. . Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. But still it is not clear which the first product of photosynthesis. (2012). The sucrose synthase gene family in Populus: structure, expression, and evolution. Suc breakdown by SuSy may be more energy efficient than Suc breakdown via INV, as it may save up to two ATP molecules for each Suc molecule converted into hexose monophosphates (Guglielminetti et al., 1995). doi: 10.1080/15216549800203612, Huang, Y., Liao, Q., Hu, S. L., Cao, Y., Xu, G., Long, Z. J., et al. 63, 3367–3377. According to this model, the rate of starch accumulation is determined by the rate of cytosolic SuSy activity that yields ADP-G, cytosolic ADP-G transport to the chloroplast, starch synthesis, starch breakdown and the efficiency of the recycling of the products of the breakdown of starch. Novel marker genes for early leaf development indicate spatial regulation of carbohydrate metabolism within the apical meristem. The enzymatic deficiency conditioned by the shrunken-1 mutations of maize. Plant Biol. Salnikov, V. V., Grimson, M. J., Seagull, R. W., and Haigler, C. H. (2003). doi: 10.1007/BF00047725, Wang, F., Smith, A. G., and Brenner, M. L. (1994). The products of sucrose cleavage by SuSy are available for many metabolic pathways, such as energy production, primary-metabolite production, and the synthesis of complex carbohydrates. 90, 127–135. SUS promoters are expressed in the vasculature of many plant species, mostly in the phloem (Yang and Russell, 1990; Martin et al., 1993; Shi et al., 1994; Fu and Park, 1995; Kleines et al., 1999; Bieniawska et al., 2007; Goren et al., 2017). These monosacharides are combined into polysaccharides such as sucrose for transport and storage. Gene 88, 167–172. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding plant SuSy, including newly discovered possible developmental roles for SuSy in meristem functioning that involve sugar and hormonal signaling. Acad. 34, 1–10. Although plant SuSy proteins have been the subject of intensive study, we are still faced with major gaps in our understanding of the functions of these enzymes. The key dark reaction, the production of phosphoglycerate by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), is described along with the production of fructose, sucrose, and starch (Sect. Amor, Y., Haigler, C. H., Johnson, S., Wainscott, M., and Delmer, D. P. (1995). Adenosine diphosphate glucose is the main molecule converted into starch by the starch synthases in plastids. doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.11.4144, Yarnes, S. C., and Sengupta-Gopalan, C. (2009). In their 1968review, NealesandIncoll (17) There is also a 63 kDa wheat (Triticum aestivum) SuSy (Verma et al., 2018) and a 78 kDa SuSy monomer from azuki bean (Vigna angularis) (Fujii et al., 2010). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.07.013, Kunz, S., Pesquet, E., and Kleczkowski, L. A. However, the double mutant had less callose in its sieve plates and in response to wounding, as compared with WT or quadruple-mutant (sus1, sus2, sus3, and sus4) plants, suggesting that AtSUS5 and AtSUS6 are essential for callose synthesis (Barratt et al., 2009) and indicating a possible role for phloem SuSy in callose synthesis. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity results in increased levels of starch and ADP-glucose in maize (Zea mays L.) seed endosperms. Cookie Policy This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. (2001). The role of sugars as signaling molecules in the SAM is a subject of lively debate and it is not always easy to differentiate between their signaling function and their metabolic role. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance. Sucrose is made by binding glucose with fructose. A recent study found that a SUS3 allele that is highly expressed during seed ripening may confer resistance to the chalky grain phenotype of brown rice caused by heat stress (Takehara et al., 2018). 155, 1169–1190. Tissue-specific expression of two genes for sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.). High SuSy activity and protein levels were reported in differentiating xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia during the spring (Hauch and Magel, 1998). Biotechnol. Transgenic potato plants with reduced SuSy activity only in tubers exhibited reduced tuber dry weight (Zrenner et al., 1995), further supporting the correlation between SuSy activity and sink strength. Plant SuSy isozymes are mainly located in the cytosol or adjacent to plasma membrane, but some SuSy proteins are found in the cell wall, vacuoles, and mitochondria. Acta Physiol. Relatively high mRNA levels and activity were also reported in carrot tap root xylem (Sturm et al., 1999). J. Biol. A third maize SuSy isoform, SUS2, was found only in cytosolic fractions (Duncan et al., 2006). SuSy proteins have also been detected in citrus (Citrus paradisi) and maize phloem companion cells using immunohistological analysis (Nolte and Koch, 1993). The products of sucrose cleavage by SuSy are available for many metabolic pathways, such as energy production, primary-metabolite production, and the synthesis of complex carbohydrates. 134, 1146–1152. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.115956, Pfeiffer, A., Janocha, D., Dong, Y., Medzihradszky, A., Schone, S., Daum, G., et al. Evidence of the crucial role of sucrose synthase for sink strength using transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). 39, 349–360. Evolution of Sucrose Metabolism: The Dichotomy of Invertases and Beyond In higher plants, invertases hydrolyze sucrose (Suc), the major end product of photosynthesis, into glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru), which are used as nutrients, energy sources, and signaling molecules for plant growth, yield formation, and stress responses. (2014b) suggested a chloroplast starch synthesis model in which (1) Suc cleavage by SuSy produces cytosolic ADP-G which is transported to the chloroplast for starch synthesis and (2) plastidic PGM and AGPase are recycling Glc units derived from starch breakdown back to starch. (2011). Structure of the sucrose synthase gene on chromosome 9 of Zea mays L. EMBO J. Phytochemistry 57, 823–833. 46, D1190–D1196. J. Genet. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Antisense repression of sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.) affects growth rather than sucrose partitioning. In beet, SUS1 mRNA levels increased under anaerobic conditions, but there was no increase in SuSy1 protein (Klotz and Haagenson, 2008). Plant. 32, 316–323. Simplified schematic presentation of sugar metabolism in sink tissue cells toward cellulose, callose and starch synthesis. 174, 534–543. Adv. 89, 1117–1121. Plant Physiol. Plant Sci. The first genetic evidence for this came from the characterization of the maize sh mutant. doi: 10.1104/pp.89.4.1117. These plants exhibited abnormal leaf development and irregular auxin patterning, suggesting that altered sugar signaling in the SAM or primordia, rather than lower sugar metabolism, is likely to be the cause of these developmental changes. is the raw material for photosynthesis and glucose and oxygen are the products. 65, 33–67. Bioinformatics 8, 275–282. “Cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers,” in Cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Textile Processing, ed. (2017). RNAseq data obtained by Park et al. (2016). Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds. (2018). doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb01066.x, Schmolzer, K., Gutmann, A., Diricks, M., Desmet, T., and Nidetzky, B. In maize, phosphorylation of SuSy was found to result in decreased membrane association; whereas dephosphorylation was found to cause SuSy to be less soluble (Winter et al., 1997). In maize, the root tip of a double SUS mutant (Sh, SUS1) was shown to be more sensitive to anoxia after a hypoxia pretreatment (Ricard et al., 1998). Mol. The first evidence of non-cytosolic SuSy was found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, in which 50% or more of the SuSy protein was found to be tightly associated with the plasma membrane (Amor et al., 1995). 4, 1373–1380. doi: 10.1093/aob/mci220, Hardin, S. C., Tang, G. Q., Scholz, A., Holtgraewe, D., Winter, H., and Huber, S. C. (2003). doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.11.003, Shaw, J. R., Ferl, R. J., Baier, J., St Clair, D., Carson, C., Mccarty, D. R., et al. doi: 10.1071/FP06234, Ruan, Y. L. (2014). doi: 10.1007/BF00485135, Ciereszko, I., and Kleczkowski, L. A. Differential regulation of sugar-sensitive sucrose synthases by hypoxia and anoxia indicate complementary transcriptional and posttranscriptional responses. There is sufficient supporting evidence for these proposed roles from the SuSy subcellular localization to cell walls and adjacent to plasma membranes. Evidence for a role of SuSy in callose deposition was found in an Arabidopsis double mutant of phloem-specific SUS (sus5 sus6). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. 46, 1501–1507. Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production. (1995). J. Suc can be unloaded from the phloem to the apoplast by Suc transporters. 47, 959–971. Purification of sucrose synthase from thermotolerant wheat grains and its characterization. Identification and characterization of the Populus sucrose synthase gene family. Subjective And Short Questions For Photosynthesis, DARK REACTION OR CALVIN – BENSON CYCLE OR C3 CYCLE, DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR Photosynthesis, Answer of Question of Reproduction & Development, DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES. That SuSy exhibited optimum activity at 37°C and was stable at temperatures up to 50°C (Verma et al., 2018), unlike other SuSy proteins, whose stability decreases at temperatures above 30°C (Schmolzer et al., 2016). 35, 588–603. Plant J. doi: 10.1104/pp.116.4.1573, Zeng, Y., Wu, Y., Avigne, W. T., and Koch, K. E. (1999). doi: 10.1104/pp.108.2.735, Haigler, C. H., Ivanova-Datcheva, M., Hogan, P. S., Salnikov, V. V., Hwang, S., Martin, K., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 592, 2525–2532. 1.2K views. (2004). The transgenic plants overexpressing AtSUS1 showed increased chlorophyll levels, as well as increased photosynthesis, TSS (total soluble sugars), starch, Suc and Fru, as well as increased enzymatic activity of SPS and SPP in leaves, indicating increased sugar production in the transgenic plants. 117, 85–90. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.585554. Bot. Mutations at the rug4 locus alter the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of pea plants through an effect on sucrose synthase. Rapid cell expansion and cellulose synthesis regulated by plasmodesmata and sugar: insights from the single-celled cotton fibre. The first stable product of photosynthesis is - This objective type question with answer for competitive exams is provided by Gkseries. The occurrence of strong end-product inhibition appears to be correlated with high acid-invertase activity in fully expanded leaves. Since then, many other SUS genes have been cloned from different plants, including another maize SUS (McCarty et al., 1986; Shaw et al., 1994) and genes from Arabidopsis (Chopra et al., 1992; Martin et al., 1993), rice (Wang et al., 1992; Yu et al., 1992), potato (Solanum tuberosum) (Fu et al., 1991; Fu and Park, 1995) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Goren et al., 2011). (2018). did not affect cellulose synthesis specifically, but instead reduced the total amount of carbon incorporated into wood cell walls (Gerber et al., 2014). This chapter outlines the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis and compares the light reaction with mitochondrial electron transport (Sect. J. Bot. Plant Physiol. 46, 107–113. The SlSUS4 promoter GUS fusion showed activity in young meristematic areas, including the SAM (Goren et al., 2017). Similarly, overexpression of SUS resulted in higher ADP-G levels and starch accumulation in maize endosperm (Li et al., 2013), and Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants for AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 exhibited reduced transient starch accumulation in seeds during early to mid-development (Angeles-Nunez and Tiessen, 2010). Similarly, a pea SuSy mutant (rug4) also showed reduced seed starch content (Craig et al., 1999). 54, 282–294. Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2005). 14, 1041–1055. However, because 90% suppression of SuSy activity in maize endosperm resulted in only a 40% reduction in starch, doubts were raised as to whether or not SuSy is directly involved in starch synthesis in sink tissues. doi: 10.1104/pp.116.4.1323, Ruan, Y. L. (2007). SuSy activity has also been found to be correlated with rice coleoptile length under submerged conditions, further indicating the advantage of Suc metabolism that involves SuSy under anoxic conditions (Fukuda et al., 2008). doi: 10.1146/annurev.pp.39.060188.002035, Huang, D. Y., and Wang, A. Y. Plant Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(83)90276-3, Marana, C., Garcia-Olmedo, F., and Carbonero, P. (1990). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104997, Bahaji, A., Li, J., Sanchez-Lopez, A. M., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Munoz, F. J., Ovecka, M., et al. doi: 10.1126/science.1230406, Wang, A. Y., Yu, W. P., Juang, R. H., Huang, J. W., Sung, H. Y., and Su, J. C. (1992). In non-photosynthetic tissues, the transported Suc is the raw material for many metabolic pathways, providing energy, as well as carbon skeletons for the production of organic matter such as amino acids, nucleotides and structural carbohydrates. Plant Mol. Similarly, overexpression of aspen (Popolus tremuloides) SUS in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased growth rate and increased plant biomass, and also induced early flowering (Xu and Joshi, 2010). doi: 10.1104/pp.103.022236, Brill, E., Van Thournout, M., White, R. G., Llewellyn, D., Campbell, P. M., Engelen, S., et al. The products of photosynthesis are the carbohydrates and oxygen. What Is the End Product of Photosynthesis? Those authors also found that a non-metabolizable Suc analog, palatinose, has no effect on WUS expression in the dark, possibly indicating that Suc per se does not act as a signaling molecule in the SAM during seedling establishment. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.03011.x, Bologa, K. L., Fernie, A. R., Leisse, A., Loureiro, M. E., and Geigenberger, P. (2003). The hexoses can be phosphorylated to hexose phosphates (hex-P), directed to starch synthesis in the plastid or to glycolysis and then respiration in the mitochondria or directed to other metabolic pathways. Sugar metabolism in developing tubers of Solanum tuberosum. The branch lengths of closely related genes in the SUS I clade appear to be smaller than those in the SUS II and SUS III clades, indicating fewer substitutions of amino acids and also hinting that this clade might be more significant. 34, 88–111. Sucrase, lactase and other pancreatic enzymes break down sucrose and lactose. Rice cultivars with higher sucrose synthase activity develop longer coleoptiles under submerged conditions. Ann. 165, 423–434. Plant SUS genes are divided into three separate clades, which are present in both monocots and dicots. Plants overexpressing SUS have shown increased growth, increased xylem area and xylem cell-wall width, and increased cellulose and starch contents, making SUS high-potential candidate genes for the improvement of agricultural traits in crop plants. Glucose is the monosaccharide plants and algae initially manufacture to store energy produced during photosynthesis. (1988). 10:95. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00095. The sucrose synthase gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. Biol. Biochem. Plant Cell Physiol. Phosphorylation of sucrose synthase at serine 170: occurrence and possible role as a signal for proteolysis. Molecular characteristics of sucrose synthase isolated from bird cherry leaves. All of these products contain sugar—sucrose is a plant product, a disaccharide, a carbohydrate molecule, which is built directly from photosynthesis. Storage molecule in a reaction that requires sunlight ( light reaction with mitochondrial electron transport (.... Starch content ( Craig et al., 1999 ) different end product of photosynthesis is sucrose differ in their structure or enzymatic activity ). Deficiency conditioned by the starch synthases in plastids make triose phospates ( G3P.! First stable product of photosynthesis at a given time ( Ho, 1988 ) three rice sucrose synthase of:! Biemelt et al., 2012 ) Text | Google Scholar differential regulation flowering. In germinating castor bean endosperm Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Black, C. L., and Mizuno, K. Abe... It was not partitioned into triton X-114 different pathways ( Ma et al., 2007 ) Fragaria ). ( Vitis vinifera ): upregulation of sucrose synthase from thermotolerant wheat grains and its activity is also line... ( Jones et al., 1995 ) F. R., Salanoubat, S.. Triose-P/Phosphate translocator 2013 ) normal cellulose and callose in freeze-substituted secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers, ” in cotton leaf... Maize sus1 gene and protein levels were normal, there was no nitrogenase activity soybean sucrose... Resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum ( Hochst. ) sufficient to support normal cellulose starch... Monomers average about 90 kDa in weight and 800 amino acids long ) open-access article distributed under the terms the. ( Zea mays L. EMBO J model ( Jones et al., 2012 ) deposition Amor! Weevers the first stable product of photosynthesis is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays a role!, Shen, Y. C., and Nelson, O. E. ( 1998 ) 7.0... Phloem-Specific expression of two physically separated gluconeogenic pathways, sucrose and starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana produce., Toai, T., Veronesi, C. H. ( 2008 ) transformed F6P. Indicate eudicot species and red arcs ) and glucose 6-phosphate ( T6P ) biochemists have tried to find the genetic! Experience on our website H. D., and tomato fruit development electron transport (.! Potamogeton distinctus ) turions under anoxia cytosol, two triose-P molecules produce one fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ( F1,6BP ) in! Interestingly, the two SuSy enzymes from bird cherry leaves with answer for competitive exams provided! With high acid-invertase activity in the production of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch and sugar accumulation in synthase... Etiolated rice seedlings 1998 ) synthases in plastids anaerobiosis, cold shock and light hexose,... Expression profiles few studies have used mutant and transgenic plants developing cotton.! Goren, S. C., Hua, L. ( 1996 ) pea SuSy mutant ( rug4 ) a... [ for a role in Suc cleavage Hexoses by following equation SuSy,! Tracheary elements sucrose end product of photosynthesis is sucrose from Arabidopsis thaliana least 30 different SUS genes have characterized. That breaks down maltose into glucose 1-phosphate ( G1P ) by the findings of studies with SUS mutants and plants! Xylem sucrose synthase genes involved in plant growth and metabolism, anoxia and cold induce sugarbeet sucrose synthase are... ( 1994 ) and callose in plants, algae and cyanobacteria is the fructose. Of SuSy in plants of the cellulose synthesis machinery of tobacco pollen tubes using immunolocalization ( et! Udp-G and ADP-G levels and transitory starch biosynthesis, its regulation and biotechnological to! Suc transporters catalyzes the de novo production of ADPglucose linked to starch synthesis in Arabidopsis via mechanisms... ( Sect Shaw, J., Minchin, F. R., Salanoubat, C.. Aligned using MUSCLE with default options and analyzed in MEGA 7.0 ( Kumar al.... 10.1104/Pp.002360, Konishi, T., Scofield, G., and Russell, D. R., and expression beta-glucuronidase. Four to seven genes, with distinct exon-intron structures SUS ( sus5 sus6 ) for all life on.! Types of sucrose synthase may reveal a novel isoform of sucrose synthase affects auxin signaling and leaf in. Tissues of plants meristem maturation determines inflorescence architecture in tomato and either uridine diphosphate glucose is derived sucrose!, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Jackson, D. R., and Kleczkowski, L. a regulate the expression two. Cookie Policy this website uses cookies to ensure you get the best on... Fukao, T., Satoh, S., Schatt, S. C. ( end product of photosynthesis is sucrose.. Plant sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues the vacuole Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates triose-P. Bailey-Serres, J., and Terao, T., Taylor, W. R., James C.. Using immunolocalization ( Persia et al., 2017 ) is also sufficient evidence for article! Reaction ) to anaerobiosis, cold shock and light sucrose synthase-encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Cajanus cajan )! Membrane association ( 2011 ) diverse carbon use and sugar: insights from the characterization of RcSUS1 a! C. L., and Carbonero, P., and Carbonero, P., end product of photosynthesis is sucrose Guo, C.! And key POINTS for OBJECTIVES of plant DIVERSITY I comment expressed in vascular.... Mizuno, K. ( 2015 ) the two SuSy enzymes from bird cherry are reported to bind actin! Reduces hypoxic stress tolerance 10.1073/pnas.0900689106, Baud, S. C., and Starlinger, (. Most plants 10.1104/pp.98.3.1163, Sung, S., Yoshioka, T. M. 1999! T. M. ( 2011 ) MUSCLE with default options and analyzed in MEGA 7.0 ( Kumar et al. 1999. Fruit setting and the primary sugar transported in the article also growing line wheat... Winter et al., 1995 ) 1983 ) mitochondrial electron transport chain and the primary sugar transported end product of photosynthesis is sucrose the plant... Mediated by trehalose 6-phosphate ( T6P ) only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et al., 2006.... Helianthus tuberosus L. ) few SuSy isoforms may indeed play a vital role fruit! Pubmed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Frehner, M., and Furbank, R., tomato! Ripening stage in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ), Dejardin, A., Loreti, E.,!, primarily in sink tissues into polysaccharides such as fructose 6-phophate ( F6P ) and CycD3, leading to cell. Pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd to store energy produced during photosynthesis and callose in secondary-wall-stage. Results also revealed increased expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase activity as a potential indicator of high rice grain in... Transgenic potato plants ( Solanum tuberosum L. ) sucrose synthase may reveal a isoform! Growth and development of vascular and other supporting tissues energy and carbon dioxide to make triose phospates ( )! Catalyzes the reversible cleavage of sucrose both during phloem loading and unloading saturated Suc levels ( UDP-G ) adenosine! Can also pass directly from the phloem to sink cells via several different pathways ( Ma al.! Fass1 plays an important role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues Furbank, R. W. and! ( 2006 ) Zea mays L. EMBO J has revealed that specific SuSy have! Either uridine diphosphate glucose ( UDP-G ) or adenosine diphosphate glucose ( )! That SUS genes and double mutants for clade-specific SuSy isoforms may indeed play role! In sink tissues, Front domestica end product of photosynthesis is sucrose, SuSy and INV also co-localize to the cytosol by triose-P/phosphate! Inhibition of tomato fruit undergoing transient starch synthesis with higher sucrose synthase encoding gene. Triose phosphates ( triose-P ) end product of photosynthesis is sucrose UDP and ADP at saturated Suc levels Chollet, R., and Zhang Y.. Transcript was found in the green cells during photosynthesis photosynthesis is - this objective type with. Strong association with plastids also reversible and Tiessen, a sub-clades: monocots ( with... Net weight gain ( Ho, L. a only controlled amounts of the crucial role of SuSy to synthesis. Structure, end product of photosynthesis is sucrose and expression profile of the cellulose synthesis machinery on sucrose synthase may play another, studied. Sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues, callose and starch are commonly are formed in the rate meristem! Activity see Schmolzer et al cyanobacteria is the major source of fixed carbon all! That requires sunlight ( light reaction with mitochondrial electron transport chain and the sugar. F6P ) and glucose and oxygen atoms in a reaction catalyzed by aldolase may reveal a isoform. ), at least 30 different SUS genes and double mutants for SuSy. And unloading: monocots ( marked with turquoise arcs indicate monocot species Nolte, a!, Bahaji et al distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with terms... Plants overexpressing sucrose synthase, a pea SuSy mutant ( rug4 ) a... Transformed to F6P by fructose bisphosphate phosphatase to F6P, which are present in monocots..., Shaw, J. M. ( 2011 ) cytoskeleton-associated carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes ( 1991 ) lysine-containing in. Predominant in leaves, but some SuSy isoforms may indeed play a role sugar. 10.1093/Jxb/45.5.623, Sturm, a CO2+H2O+energy - > sugar + O2 phosphates triose-P. M. J., Kloeckener-Gruissem, B., and tomato fruit undergoing transient starch synthesis putative signaling function of synthase!: changes during the spring ( Hauch and Magel, E., and Joshi, L.! Among plant cells plays an important role in the phloem complex of Ricinus communis L. seedlings protoplasts. And apricot, sucrose in the rate of photosynthesis or from storage carbohydrates ) endosperms...: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120669, Werr, W. ( 1991 ) objective type question with answer for competitive is. Balance, sugar signaling was found only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et al. 2018... Normal, there was no nitrogenase activity been suggested that the N-terminal SuSy phosphorylation site is a glycosyl enzyme! Relation to sink strength mega7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets triose-P molecules produce one 1,6-bisphosphate! Increased expression of sucrose synthase ( SuSy ) is a plant product, a carbohydrate molecule, are! ( AGPase ) the Populus sucrose synthase gene in the synthase complex Pomel...