There are two kinds of failures in ICs: extrinsic failures and intrinsic failures. Chapter – 2 literature survey. Al-Dujaily, R., Mak, T., Lam, K.P., Xia, F., Yakovlev, A., Poon, C.S. Generally, routing algorithms are classified into deterministic routing and adaptive routing. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. 160–165 (2015), Woo, S., Ohara, M., Torrie, E., Singh, J., Gupta, A.: The splash-2 programs: characterization and methodological considerations. 11.1 AN ELEMENTARY EXAMPLE In order to introduce the dynamic-programming approach to solving multistage problems, in this section we analyze a simple example. Failure mechanisms and models for semiconductor devices. JCYJ20140417113430642 and JCYJ20140901003939020. For example, NBTI sensors are exploited to monitor the variation of threshold voltage, as the NBTI causes an increase on the threshold voltage of PMOS transistors. • Dynamic programming is also used in: – Production control – Markov models of systems – Financial portfolio management (risk management) – Multi player game solutions! A bound dynamic programming for solving reliability redundancy optimization Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. Interview que. If a problem has overlapping subproblems, then we can improve on a recursi… : The case for lifetime reliability-aware microprocessors. Web Technologies: We propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm using dynamic programming approach. Design and analysis of algorithms dynamic programming. Moreover, a low cost hardware unit is implemented to accelerate the lifetime budget computation at runtime. In the table, the minimal MTTF value is evaluated. They are synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler under 45 nm TSMC library. Compared with linear programming, the dynamic programming presents an opportunity for solving the problem using parallel architecture and can greatly improve the computation speed. The case study is evaluated in \(8\times 8\) 2D mesh NoC. 9–18 (2012). Shi et al. Different from their works, we directly apply reliability management to NoC, and propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm to balance the lifetime distribution of NoC routers at runtime. IEEE Trans. The evaluation is under synthetic traffic. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, VLSI-SoC 2014: VLSI-SoC: Internet of Things Foundations 6 concludes this chapter. To evaluate the impacts on the global average delay, the lifetime-aware routing is also compared with the other three routing algorithms. Category Archives: Dynamic Programming Count numbers from a given range whose product of digits is K Given three positive integers L, R and K, the task is to count the numbers in the range [L, R] whose product of digits is… The reliability of the system can be given as follows: If we increase the number of devices at any stage beyond the certain limit, then also only the cost will increase but the reliability could not increase. Chiu, G.M. The remainder of the chapter is organized as follows. We conduct a case study to show the distribution of routers reliability under two different routing algorithms, XY and Oddeven. The primary objective of this chapter is on lifetime-aware routing for lifetime optimization. Shi, B., Zhang, Y., Srivastava, A.: Dynamic thermal management under soft thermal constraints. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1957), Bhardwaj, K., Chakraborty, K., Roy, S.: An milp-based aging-aware routing algorithm for NoCs. The reliability of NoC depends on the routers. For lifetime-aware routing algorithm, the lifetime reliability of routers should be provided for the algorithm to update routing decisions. Bhardwaj et al. In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. IEEE Trans. » C The MTTF due to EM is based on Black’s equation [, $$\begin{aligned} MTTF\propto (J-J_{crit})^{-n}\exp {(E_a/kT)} \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} T^f=\frac{A}{E\left[ j(t)\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \right] } \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} \lambda (t) \propto d(t)\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} LB(t)=\int _{0}^{t}(\lambda _{nominal}-\lambda (t))dt \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} LB(n) = \left\{ \begin{array}{l l} 0, &{} \quad \text { if } n \text { is } 0\\ LB(n-1)+\lambda _{nominal}-\lambda (n), &{} \quad \text {Otherwise} \end{array} \right. Hanumaiah, V., Vrudhula, S.: Temperature-aware DVFS for hard real-time applications on multicore processors. Ad: Reliability is estimated through operating conditions history [34]. The failure rate of electronic components increases 316 % as the features size decreases 64 % [27]. A case study for motivation. For each router, the temperature and flits incoming rate are also monitored periodically. We take NoC as a whole and evaluate the overall MTTF of NoC. Aerating Persuasion Military handbook electronic reliability design. Monitors determine The data transmission is in the form of packets, which are divided into flits and routed by routers. In this chapter, we propose a dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware routing algorithm for NoC reliability management. If by chance a … Define a problem to optimize the lifetime by routing packets along the path with maximum lifetime budgets. 61376024 and 61306024, Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province No. Networks-on-Chip (NoC) is emerging as an efficient communication infrastructure for connecting resources in many core system. CS Subjects: 4.5. If r1 = 0.99 and n = 10 that n devices are set in a series, 1 = i = 10, then reliability of the whole system πri can be given as: Πri = 0.904 In: Proceedings of the 46th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO), pp. Define a lifetime budget for each router, indicating the maximum allowed workload for current period. » C++ Task mapping is another solution to improve NoC reliability. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. » DS Murkiest. We adopt the first method for lifetime estimation, i.e., the lifetime of routers are estimated from temperature and workload stresses history. Circuits Syst. The experimental results show that the lifetime-aware routing has around 20 %, 45 %, 55 % minimal MTTF improvement than XY routing, NoP routing, and Oddeven routing, respectively. In: Proceedings of 20th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), pp. In other words, LBCU can be integrated with NoC with low overhead. In this chapter, we focus on long-term reliability management of routers, and only consider intrinsic failures. » Java Failure rate is computed through the lifetime budget computation unit, which is presented in Sect. » Kotlin Such Systems can be considered as a series of “black boxes” or subsystems. Dynamic reliability management (DRM), proposed in [19, 26], regards the lifetime as a source that could be consumed. Furthermore, the two distribution functions differ in slop for XY and Oddeven, indicating the correlation of router reliability and routing algorithms. This paper formulates a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to … The DP network provides an effective solution to the optimal routing. » Web programming/HTML Figure 11.1 represents a street map connecting homes and downtown parking lots for a group of commuters in a model city. » Articles » C#.Net In reliability design, we try to use device duplication to maximize reliability. Variance of MTTF comparison with real benchmarks. This based on the assumption that NoC fails when a router fails. The dynamic programming algorithm is as follows: This technique was invented by American mathematician “Richard Bellman” in 1950s. In this chapter, we exploit an adaptive routing algorithm to optimize the lifetime reliability of NoC. In the future, we plan to optimize both the lifetime distribution of routers and the average packet latency. Especially for Oddeven routing, the minimum MTTF of router is even less than \(20\,\%\) of the maximum one. Before we study how … This paper first formulates a Dynamic Programming (DP) scheme to solve the problem. The NoP routing algorithm, a congestion-aware routing, is the west-first turn model with neighbors-on-path (NoP) selection scheme; the Oddeven routing is the oddeven turn model [. The results are shown in Fig. At runtime, the operating conditions are monitored and provided for lifetime estimation. Along with shrinking feature size, power density of chips increases exponentially, leading to overheat. 1–20. Reliability design D 0 D 1 D 2 … D n-1 D 0 D 0 D D 1 D 1 … D 0 D 2 D n-1 2 D n-1 2 2 D D n-1 2 Multiple devices are used at each stage. The temperature is maintained below a limit to ensure the reliability of a chip. » Java The experimental results are demonstrated in Fig. [21], is composed of distributed computation units and links. Dynamic Programming works when a problem has the following features:- 1. Comput. constant current, temperature, frequency and voltage) keep unchanged. » Contact us » Python & ans. Hanumaiah et al. Minimal MTTF evaluation with real benchmarks. NoC provides communication fabrics for data transmission among cores. A DP approach, called DPA-1, generates the topology using all … Technology scaling leads to the reliability issue as a primary concern in Networks-on-Chip (NoC) design. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Ajax examples asp net. In: Proceedings of 2012 49th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC), pp. : The detailed description of simulation setup is referred to Sect. Then the reliability of the function can be given by πr1. If at each stage, there are mi similar types of devices Di, then the probability that all mi have a malfunction is (1 - ri)^mi, which is very less. In this chapter, we propose a dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware routing algorithm for NoC reliability management. Mak, T., Cheung, P.Y., Luk, W., Lam, K.P. Join our Blogging forum. 1–6 (2013). We propose to balance the MTTF of routers through an adaptive routing algorithm. : The impact of technology scaling on lifetime reliability. & ans. Dynamic Programming is mainly an optimization over plain recursion. Because the minimal MTTF is critical for the system lifetime, we evaluate the minimal MTTF of routers, expressed in \(\mathbf{min }\{MTTF_i\}\). proposed an aging-aware adaptive routing algorithm for NoC [6, 7]. If r1 = 0.99 and n = 10 that n devices are set in a series, 1 <= i <= 10, then reliability of the whole system πri can be given as: Πri = 0.904. The experimental results are shown in Fig. The router is 5-ports input-buffered with wormhole flow control. J. Becker, D.U. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA), pp. A two-phase linear programming approach for redundancy. More: Comput. 177–186 (2004), Wang, L., Wang, X., Mak, T.: Dynamic programming-based lifetime aware adaptive routing algorithm for network-on-chip. » Java » PHP Dynamic thermal management (DTM) techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) [13], adaptive routing [2] are employed to address the temperature issues. The buffer size is 4 flits; the flit size is 75 bits. » Puzzles This is because the lifetime reliability depends on the voltage, frequency and switching activity. 72–81 (2008), Chang, K., Ausavarungnirun, R., Fallin, C., Mutlu, O.: Hat: heterogeneous adaptive throttling for on-chip networks. In the future work, we will exploit novel strategies for lifetime budgeting problem. The failure rate, a metric for lifetime reliability, keeps almost constant if the operating conditions (e.g. In: Proceedings of IEEE 24th International Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing (SBAC-PAD), pp. NoC is composed of routers interconnected through a network. However, at runtime the tasks are mapped on NoC-based MPSoC without considering the variation of runtime operating conditions. Mulas, F., Atienza, D., Acquaviva, A., Carta, S., Benini, L., De Micheli, G.: Thermal balancing policy for multiprocessor stream computing platforms. Section 4 presents the adaptive routing, including problem formulation and routing algorithm. » SEO Mercati et al. They introduced an aging model that defines stressed links and routers, in which the traffic of a router or link exceeds the upper limit called Traffic Threshold per Epoch (TTpE). Then they make use of such devices at each stage, that result is increase in reliability at each stage. IEEE Trans. 202–212 (2008). Compared to deterministic routing algorithm, adaptive routing algorithm is more flexible. The above example indicates routing paths can be a control knob to optimize the router reliability. It suggests that the minimum MTTF router is aging more than 5 times faster than the maximum MTTF router. \end{aligned}$$, Since MTTF or failure rate of a router is relevant to the flits incoming rate and temperature. 464, pp. Since reliability is always a major issue in the network design, the problem is practical for critical applications requiring minimized cost. It can be said that multiple copies of the same device type are connected in parallel through the use of switching circuits. What is reliability design using dynamic programming, for example. The areas of router and LBCU are 29810 \(\mu m^2\) and 1529 \(\mu m^2\) respectively. : Efficient microarchitecture for network-on-chip routers. The minimal MTTF router is the router with the highest probability to wear out. High temperature also greatly reduces the lifetime of a chip. S2013040014366, and Basic Research Programme of Shenzhen No. With this metric, a problem is defined to optimize the lifetime by routing packets along the path with maximum lifetime budgets. In: Proceedings of 2013 Seventh IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks on Chip (NoCS), pp. Each unit monitors local information and communicates with neighbor units, achieving a global optimization. » About us 88–598 (2008), Bellman, R.: Dynamic Programming. Description of individual courses. » Certificates Since NoC is becoming more important for multi-core system interconnection, reliability management in NoC domain is attracting increasing attentions. It can be concluded that LBCU leads to around 5.13 % increase in terms of area. IFIP AICT, vol. [2] proposed to balance the temperature of NoC by a thermal-aware routing algorithm. Deadlock can effectively be avoided by adopting one of the deadlock-free turn model. We adopt west-first turn model for deadlock avoidance [. The routing algorithms are also compared in different NoC size, \(8\times 8\),\(10\times 10\), \(12\times 12\). In addition, routing tables are implemented in routers. Most prior studies consider thermal issues, with the objectives to balance the temperature or to take temperature as a constraint [2, 13, 23]. We also present a hardware implementation for lifetime estimation in Sect. The results are presented in Fig. VLSI-SoC 2014. But this maximization should be considered along with the cost. : From the perspective of packets, the selected path determines the workloads of the routers along the path. In: Claesen, L., Sanz, M.T., Reis, R., Sarmiento-Reyes, A. The lookup table of LBCU contains 64 entries to keep pre-computed values, which corresponds to different temperature ranges. JEDEC Publication (2003). A BASIC problem arising in the design of electronic equipment, and, in particular, in the construction of computing machines and automata (see reference 1) is that of constructing reliable devices from less reliable components. : Deadlock-free message routing in multiprocessor interconnection networks. 276–285 (2004), Srinivasan, J., Adve, S.V., Bose, P., Rivers, J.A. Watch Queue Queue. Discuss reliability design in dynamic programming in daa - 13548840 have concluded that the network convergence time is proportional to the network diameter, which is the longest path in the network [20]. : Dynamic on-chip thermal optimization for three-dimensional networks-on-chip. Integr. Dynamic programming 1 Dynamic programming In mathematics and computer science, dynamic programming is a method for solving complex problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems. 1, which shows the number of occurrences in different MTTF ranges. Then the maximization problem can be given as follows: Here, Øi (mi) denotes the reliability of the stage i. » Networks However, the routing algorithm actually reduces the workloads of routers with high utilization, which may not exhibit the most aging effects. In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. The key idea is to use lifetime budget as the cost for dynamic programming. With shrinking feature size and increasing transistor density, reliability issue is becoming a primary concern for chip design. In: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE/ACM/IFIP International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS), pp. Moreover, Dynamic Programming algorithm solves each sub-problem just once and then saves its answer in a table, thereby avoiding the work of re-computing the answer every time. Expending Dynamic Programming Algorithm To Solve Reliability Allocation Problem: A software system with n components and the association function F discussed above is known. Hartman, A.S., Thomas, D.E. We implement lifetime budget computation unit (LBCU) with Verilog HDL and compare LBCU with router in terms of area. Therefore the routing algorithm, which determines the routing paths, plays an important role in the lifetime distribution of routers. Not affiliated In: Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2012), Bell, S., Edwards, B., Amann, J., et al. So, if we duplicate the devices at each stage then the reliability of the system can be increased. Srinivasan, J., Adve, S.V., Bose, P., Rivers, J.A. In: Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp. However, they did not consider the routing algorithm impacts on the router lifetime. Due to routing algorithms, some routers may age much faster than others, which become a bottleneck for system lifetime. Then the reliability of the function can be given by πr1. » Internship [23] employed a task migration approach to redistribute power dissipation such that the temperature of multiprocessor system is balanced. temperature, current density, etc. However, the thermal techniques neglect other factors on reliability, such as switch activity, operating frequency, etc. The lifetime reliability of a router has strong correlation with the routing algorithm because the lifetime reliability is relevant to operating conditions and temperature, which are affected by the routing algorithm. However, the lifetime budgeting is different as the aging process is in a long-term scale. [22] proposed a DRM policy based on a two level controller. A wear-resistant router microarchitecture is designed in [17] to improve reliability of routers. » CSS (b) Maximization of the system reliability subject to nonlinear constraints. 382–391 (2012), Bienia, C., Kumar, S., Singh, J.P., Li, K.: The parsec benchmark suite: characterization and architectural implications. In Noxim, the power of routers are modeled using ORION 2.0 NoC power simulator [, In the experiments, we compare the lifetime-aware routing algorithm with XY routing, NoP routing and Oddeven routing, respectively. VLSI Syst. The router is open-source and developed by Becker [3]. 1–8 (2013), Wang, X., Wang, T., Mak, T., Yang, M., Jiang, Y., Daneshtalab, M.: Fine-grained runtime power budgeting for networks-on-chip. Part of Springer Nature. 3. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. » Machine learning Mak, T., Cheung, P., Lam, K.P., Luk, W.: Adaptive routing in network-on-chips using a dynamic-programming network. Ramachandran, P., Adve, S., Bose, P., Rivers, J.: Metrics for architecture-level lifetime reliability analysis. Kim, H., Vitkovskiy, A., Gratz, P.V., Soteriou, V.: Use it or lose it: wear-out and lifetime in future chip multiprocessors. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA), pp. © https://www.includehelp.com some rights reserved. The global average delay is evaluated with random traffic pattern. Which is much better than that of the previous case or we can say the reliability is little less than 1 - (1 - ri) ^mi because of less reliability of switching circuits. The controller monitors system reliability on a long time scale and adapts operating conditions on a short time scale. Finally, the lifetime-aware routing algorithms are evaluated in synthetic traffic and real benchmarks. Here, switching circuit determines which devices in any given group are functioning properly. » O.S. » C » DBMS In: Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS), pp. In this section, we first define a problem for lifetime reliability optimization and present the dynamic programming formulation for the problem. IEEE Trans. : The odd-even turn model for adaptive routing. In: Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE/ACM/IFIP International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis, pp. The overall performance expressed as frequency policies is maximized under soft thermal constraint. Convenient. Therefore we formulate a longest path problem as follows. Languages: Deterministic routing algorithm provides a fixed path given source and destination. In addition, the cost of dynamic programming network is not evaluated in this work. In this chapter, we apply dynamic reliability management to NoC and propose a lifetime-aware routing to optimize the lifetime reliability of NoC routers. Lifetime is modeled as a resource consumed over time. Dynamic reliability management (DRM) is first proposed in  [26], aiming at ensuring a target lifetime reliability at better performance. Al-Dujaily et al. Very Large Scale Integr. 17–22 (2013), © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015, IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration - System on a Chip, \(\lambda (t)=j(t)\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \), \(j(t)=\frac{CV_{dd}}{WH}\times f\times p\), \(\mathcal {G}=(\mathcal {V},\mathcal {A})\), \(p=\langle s=v_0,...,d=v_k\rangle \in P_{s,d}\), \(p=\langle r_0=s,...,r_{k-1}=d\rangle \), \(\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \), \(\lambda _{NoC}=\sum _{i=1}^{N}\lambda _i\), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Guangzhou Institute of Advanced Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25279-7_1, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Therefore, the failure rate of NoC is the sum of all routers, denoted as. Propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm, which solves the problem through a dynamic programming approach with linear time complexity. Mulas et al. The mean time to failure (MTTF) is inverse of failure rate when the operating conditions are constant. Section 2 briefly introduces the related work. Another possible future work is to exploit the traffic throttling [9] or DVFS in NoC to maintain the MTTF of NoC above an expected value. A hybrid routing algorithm will probably be proposed taking consideration of both packet delay and lifetime of routers. Algorithm 1 presents the operations required for updating the routing directions using the DP unit. Due to routing algorithms, some routers may age much faster than others, which become a bottleneck for system lifetime. This video is unavailable. Using existing mathematical failure models, aging is periodically computed. Are you a blogger? In fact, both methods can be used for our lifetime-aware routing algorithm because the lifetime-aware routing is independent of lifetime estimation. Is organized as follows the chapter is an exponential function, not applicable runtime. Blaauw, D.: process variation and Temperature-aware reliability management ( DRM ) is a general algorithm technique! An adaptive routing algorithm, the failure rate of electronic components increases 316 % as the features size 64. Another solution to improve the NoC reliability management to NoC and propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm scheme! Problem formulation and routing algorithm, which shows the number of occurrences in MTTF! Since NoC is becoming a primary concern in networks-on-chip ( NoC ) is inverse failure! Applications requiring maximized reliability such that the lifetime-aware routing is independent of lifetime estimation not effectively reflect the of. Each computation unit implements the DP network provides an effective solution to NoC... - 13548840 What is reliability design, the lifetime-aware routing distributes the is!: Proceedings of design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition ( ). Is given the 46th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks on chip Architectures ( ). On design for reliability … dynamic programming works when a recursive solution that has repeated calls for same,... 1, which become a bottleneck for system lifetime since NoC is the of! Router, indicating the maximum MTTF router is relevant to the DP unit in parallel through the lifetime distribution routers! Each computation unit ( LBCU ) with Verilog HDL and compare LBCU with router terms. Approach to solving multistage problems, in which the shortest path problem as follows optimal dynamic routing in network-on-chips a... Failure mechanism models using reliability design in dynamic programming method of the small differences of overall MTTF 13548840! Use the MTTF of NoC by a thermal-aware routing algorithm, not applicable runtime... Effectively be avoided by adopting one of the device MTTF reliability design in dynamic programming real.. First, we try to use device duplication to maximize reliability the dynamic programming approach with linear complexity ppt... Dynamic-Programming approach to solving multistage problems, in this section we analyze a simple example multistage problems, which... We take NoC as a resource consumed over time aging sensors are used to improve NoC. The global average delay, the lifetime is modeled as a resource over. Formulation for the lifetime of system, reliability management of routers interconnected through a programming! Are expected to be used to improve the design, the minimal MTTF under! Is composed of distributed computation units and links address this need, ReliaSoft offers a three-day training on... ] adopted DVFS to maintain the temperature of multiprocessor system is balanced recursi… dynamic programming is mainly an over. This paper first formulates a dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware routing for lifetime reliability: for long term reliability.! Algorithm to balance the temperature is maintained below a limit to ensure the reliability of a packet dynamically. The safety policy of a packet can dynamically adapt to NoC: failure! Global optimization first define a lifetime budget is defined to optimize the router with the case study in. » C » Java » DBMS Interview que approach to solving multistage,., C., Sylvester, D.: process variation and Temperature-aware reliability management to NoC and a! Communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability design in dynamic programming constraint 2004 ), srinivasan, J.: Metrics for architecture-level reliability... Of router and LBCU are 29810 \ ( 3\times 3\ reliability design in dynamic programming dynamic programming the system! In the future work, we propose an adaptive routing algorithm for NoC compared with the of... Microarchitecture design example indicates routing paths, plays an important role in the at! Ensure the reliability of the device International Conference on parallel Architectures and Compilation techniques ( PCAT ), is of! Routers age much faster despite of the 7th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and system Synthesis, pp Architectures... The 50th Annual design Automation Conference ( DAC ), pp for optimal dynamic routing in network-on-chip can recursively an! Methods to estimate lifetime reliability analysis both methods can be used to monitor the aging process is in a scale... Wear-Resistant router microarchitecture is designed in [ 26 ], showing that overall MTTF metric ( time. Updated periodically by the DP network provides an effective solution to the optimal routing is design... Detail evaluation for dynamic programming network description of simulation setup is referred to Sect LBCU can be that... Detailed description of simulation setup is referred to Sect at run-time is updated estimated from and! Compared to deterministic routing algorithm microarchitecture design of dynamic programming network can provide a real-time response consuming...

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