If you have a different answer for this question, then please use the Your Answer form at the bottom of the page instead. We're brought to the acquisition from purchase with a vendor header data screen. Asset master creation data and steps: SAP COMMUNITY NETWORK SDN - sdn.sap.com | BPX - bpx.sap… Here the new asset accounting breaks the postings into the followings: The first document … Related: SAP FICO Interview Questions on Fixed Assets. Take a case when you post an asset acquisition through a vendor. A cost collector is set up and funding for the AuC is budgeted and released. valuation class and a new G/L for this new material type. Hence, you need to assign each asset to an asset class. As the acquisition amount, specify the actual net amount to be capitalized. This we do together with country-specific rules for asset valuation. Appropriate Dep. I want to know the difference between asset acquisition and asset capitalization. An asset acquisition is the purchase of a company by buying its assets instead of its stock. At the time of upload they face a lot of doubts, question as how to carry out the upload in the … Further, Asset Accounting in SAP FICO provides real-time integration with FI for simultaneous recording of asset transactions. The field Capitalization is then filled in the asset with the same data. This you do for each of the depreciation areas per asset class for a chart of depreciation. Select the appropriate value in the G/L field to determine how the values from this area including depreciation are to be posted to G/L. 1.1 Create Assets – Asset under construction; 1.2 Create Assets – for Final Settlement. This is always designed as the master depreciation area that supplies value to your balance sheet. S4 HANA vs HANA Or Simple Finance vs S/4HANA Finance – What’s the Difference? This document lists approaches of masse process you can use in Asset Accounting. This is when you see one of the following characteristics: However, it differs when you have company codes in different countries with varying legal and statutory requirements. If you have an answer for this question, then please use the Your Answer form at the bottom of the page instead. You may also define special asset classes to take care of AUC, Leased Asset etc. The depreciation start date of each depreciation area will also be determined and updated in the depreciation area … You can create a separate material type for the same if required. Choose Posting → Acquisition → External Acquisition → With Vendor. This area also helps in automatic postings to FI. When answering, please include specifics, such as step-by-step instructions, context for the solution, and links to useful resources. The first postin on an asset is Asset Acquisition and Capitalization. It controls field settings of Asset Master Data. Each Asset Class only has one GL account for acquisition costs and depreciation, meaning that transaction will provide you with information for reconciliation. If you too are part of this S4 HANA Read more…, SAP Receivables Management – Definition SAP Receivables Management is a key part of an optimized order to cash process based on FI-AR. SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Organization Structure => Copy Reference Chart of Depreciation/Depreciation Areas  Transaction Code- EC08. The following are SAP Asset Accounting questions to ask your business users during implementation. Note: From the side of the Receiver asset (AUC) the system is treating this as an acquisition: Transaction type “341” is the offsetting transaction type for Transaction types “340” and “348” on the receiver assets (acquisition) side of the transaction, irrespective of whether it is line item settlement scenario or not. I values do not match you can edit migrated Fixed Assets data in SAP using transactions AS92 / AS82. I used to think, both are the same but there is surely some difference. To acquire an asset go to navigation: SAP Easy Access -> SAP Menu -> Accounting -> Financial accounting -> Fixed Asset -> Posting -> Acquisition -> External Acquisition -> Acquis. Further, you may also maintain target ledger group (Leading or Non-Leading) to which a particular depreciation area should post. Retirement without revenue. Enter the asset number, company code, document date, posting date, asset value date, amount and any other relevant parameters. 1) Fill out Field Existing asset with an asset number already created. You need to ensure that posting values from depreciation area 01 are copied to the rest of the areas. To post an integrated asset acquisition, proceed as follows: Determine the asset and the vendor account. This is for countries like USA, Germany, UK etc. ASSET MANAGEMENT IN SAP Asset Management 1 2. Asset Class helps to make structure asset based on business and legal requirements. Post the Acquisition and production cost (APC) and depreciation on a periodic basis and so on. w/Autom. I have this Asset that is wrong-created in Asset Master Data. A step-by-step tutorial on how to use the ABZON tcode to process the asset acquisition in SAP for a new and an existing fixed asset. Process analytics for SAP current asset transactions 7. In that case, you use a separate country-specific chart of depreciation. Auditing SAP processes in fixed asset and inventory 2. You already have an active moderator alert for this content. Offsetting Entry. When I checked an Asset using as03, there were different dates for both the fields. Consequently, it uses the value that has already been determined in other depreciation areas. Monthly Activities: Until the asset is completed, costs are settled monthly to the AuC … Asset management in sap 1. Key will have to be assigned against this Dep. Simple Asset: A simple asset is represented by the main asset number and does not have any sub-asset. Place of acquisition & asset location are important point for the creation of asset master. Thus, we use it to categorize assets into categories. Likewise, it provides valuation regarding retire or scraps an asset before its economic life expires. Use it as a reference, you could add in more questions as you deem fit. ASSET ACCOUNTING USER MANUALSECTİON 2 ASSET ACCOUNTING- BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS2.1 Asset Acquisition (Capitalization of Asset)OverviewUse this procedure to acquire asset from FI moduleAccess transaction by: Via Menus Accounting Financial Accounting Fixed assets Posting Acquisition External Acquisition … It further enables you to classify them for accounting purpose. Press Release. Please note, you can manage AUC collectively in a single master record or as individual items with separate master records. Noteworthy, you require only one chart of depreciation in SAP FICO Asset Accounting for all your company codes. Here we would like to draw your attention to AR05 transaction code in SAP.As we know it is being used in the SAP FI-AA (Asset Accounting in FI) component which is coming under FI module (Financial Accounting).AR05 is a transaction code used for Call Up Asset Acquisition List in SAP. As far as reporting and field display are concerned, there is no difference between real or derived areas. Regardless of the document type (gross/net) which you use, the system does not deduct a discount here. If you want the poster to clarify the question or provide more information, please leave a comment instead, requesting additional details. Asset Accounting in SAP FICO can manage all your fixed assets, irrespective of your industry and country. This is a necessary process to post an integrated asset acquisition in SAP S/4 HANA Finance. New Asset … Similarly, it also ensures that you do not have to maintain these terms in the asset master records. Through this acquisition, SAP expands its sustainability product portfolio as well as its market and thought leadership in sustainability. No matter the size of your company, asset accounting is a vital process needed to manage fixed assets. Share a link to this. This includes building, plant and machinery, electrical equipment, vehicles, furniture and fittings. SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Valuation => Determine Depreciation Areas in the Asset Class. We usually call it as a subsidiary ledger of FI. ASSET Master Upload. To change or denote a depreciation area as real or derived, copy the entry and select or deselect the Real checkbox. You can manage an indefinite number of support measures for each asset. Importantly, you may use more than one depreciation area to represent different asset valuations. Further, a chart of depreciation is made up of a list of such depreciation areas. You should only submit an answer when you are proposing a solution to the poster's problem. Here, it uses the same currency as that of the company code. SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Valuation => Depreciation Areas => Specify Transfer of Depreciation Terms. In addition, SAP has designed Asset accounting to manage the entire lifecycle of fixed assets. Also, please make sure that you answer complies with our Rules of Engagement. AUC is a special type of tangible asset. Revert if issue still persists. We represent it with asset sub-numbers. which you should not use as such. We have created two asset master records, one Asset under Construction and one for the final settlement. This document is for the consultants who are doing first time Asset Master Data Upload. Asset Accounting has further taken a new direction with the launch of S4HANA. It is possible to create with AS01 the option post-Capitalization, in this case you have to fill in the Capitalization manual, Help to improve this answer by adding a comment. If the asset is a sub-asset, enter the master asset ID in the Master Inventory ID field. SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Organization Structure => Asset Classes => Create Screen Layout Rule. That is to say, you need a separate asset class to represent such an asset. At the time of the acquisition, TechniData had been an SAP partner for more than 15 years, and has helped shape SAP’s sustainability offerings in the EHS arena. Overview . This area determines the new asset values. An asset class is a classification parameter. The purpose of this document is to provide brief overview on Asset Master Data upload process in the SAP system. Transaction code – OAOA. This includes initial and subsequent acquisition, retirement, transfer and scrapping. Interpret the steps in the general ledger process. Vendor (Accounts payable) Posting date of the document will be copied into the asset master as the capitalization date. 1. Agenda Assets Accounting Types of Assets • AUC Assets • Fixed Assets Asset Life Cycle • Asset Master • Asset Acquisition • Asset Transfer • Asset Retirement Retirement with scrap. You can specify an area from which you need to transfer the depreciation terms to another area. Hi All, as you know that the last post was my first tutorial on asset accounting. You use Transaction F-90 and input all the necessary parameters. However, if you specify that a particular derived area is only for reporting, and then the system does not subject that area to value checks. In addition, SAP has designed Asset accounting to manage the entire lifecycle of fixed assets. The field Capitalization is then filled in the asset with the same data. 3 Posting the Closing Invoice – Acquisition without order – FB01. Posting in New Asset Accounting in S/4 HANA Finance for Integrated Asset Acquisition Rana Actively looking for opportunities SAP FICO /FSCM SME TRM Lead– Houston at DXC Technology For depreciating at the main asset number level, you also must maintain the screen layout rule. Know someone who can answer? Each asset class has the control parameters and default values for general master data and depreciation terms. An Asset under construction (AuC) goes through three main phases throughout its life cycle. This Scope item is used in the following way: As a support function of Accounting and Financial Close within Finance Scope Item Group; Process flow of Asset Under Construction (BFH) Find below the process flow of the scope item Asset Under Construction as it is … Must Read: New Asset Accounting in SAP S4HANA Finance, Watch Video: Asset Accounting in SAP FICO by Pradeep Hota, What is SAP Preliminary Costing? In such cases, mass process tools can improve the efficiency and save project time significantly. In most jurisdictions, an asset acquisition typically also involves an assumption of certain liabilities. Regards, Amol Account Determination creates a link between the asset classes and the GL accounts. As a result, it ensures uniform depreciation in the target areas. AS01 only allows you to create an asset … With S/4HANA it has become more advanced and more important. Attachments: Up to 10 attachments (including images) can be used with a maximum of 1.0 MB each and 10.5 MB total. > Hope this clarifies. In the world of SAP, there have been improvements to the financial process area of SAP S/4HANA and, specifically, the asset accounting solution which has been redesigned – and is referred to as new asset accounting. For this, it uses some mathematical operations. In many business requirements, we need to register asset master data or process some transaction for a number of assets. If the asset was acquired during the current year, fill the columns for current year acquisition and production costs and posted depreciation only. How to audit fixed assets procurement in SAP 4. (Or Copy Reference Chart of Depreciation). SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Organization Structure => Asset Classes => Specify Account Determination. SAP provides with a number of the country-specific standard cost of depreciation. T code for creating asset master is AS01. It starts with purchasing to retirement or scrapping. It allows you to park and post the transactions related to fixed assets. 2009 As far as I know, we cannot change the acquisition date in Asset … SAP Central Payments – A key use of Central Finance, SAP Receivables Management in S/4HANA – An Overview, Directly post the goods or invoice receipt from, Post asset sales from FI-AA to a customer account using FI-1R, Further, Capitalize the asset maintenance expenses in FI-AA using asset settlements through the PM module, Lastly, Pass depreciation from FI-AA to CO, Or operate in different countries but in the same industry. It is also known as the Book Depreciation Area. All other postings on the asset are acquisition. Additionally, Asset Classes are connected to the G/L accounts through the account assignments. This is because normally many countries do not allow depreciation. I want to change the acquisition date into the right date (which is January 2012). First create the document header (document … Else operate in different countries but with the same rules of asset valuation. This FI end user training guide on Asset Accounting consists of following sequence of sub-processes with screenshots and definitions; Create Asset Number [AS01] Create Sub Asset [AS11] Asset Acquisition [F-90] View Asset Values [AW01N] Depreciation Run [AFAB] Asset Retirement from Sale with Customer [F-92] Asset … Preliminary Costing is the first step in cost object controlling, which involves preliminary costing for manufacturing orders. Retirement … Noteworthy the optional setting allows you to enter the values during transaction postings. However, because the parties can bargain over which assets will be acquired and which liabilities will be assumed, the transaction … It starts with purchasing to retirement or scrapping. The first version of New Asset Accounting was actually introduced in 2013 on SAP ECC6 Enhancement Pack 7. Asset Cut over – Current Year Acquisitions : In S/4 HANA, to post an asset with current year Acquisition we have to use three transactions: Transaction code AS91 for Asset Master Data. Now, when this is complete, you can transfer or distribute AUC to other asset master records through line item settlement. This, > posting, however, is to be made for a fiscal year, > That means in Post-Capitalization scenario your are, > creating an asset in SAP which was physically. Asset Accounting in SAP FICO can manage all your fixed assets, irrespective of your industry and country. Types of Postings in SAP Asset Accounting. Thus, using this we can calculate the depreciation of assets, automatically and manually, both. 1] U can procure the machine as Asset. Describe how to locate accounts receivable reports in SAP. It is denoted by a two-digit key. With the help of the automated process, Receivables Management delivers high-quality customer interaction Read more…, SAP S4 HANA Simple Finance Training Online, SAP FICO Interview Questions on Fixed Assets, New Asset Accounting in SAP S4HANA Finance, Asset Accounting in SAP FICO by Pradeep Hota, Preliminary Costing in SAP Product Costing – Detailed Overview. Thus, it allows you to make a single account assignment for several asset classes. SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Organization Structure => Asset Classes => Define Asset Class. The asset acquisition comes before the receipt of the invoice. Transaction Code- OABD. Asset Accounting is a really long concept in SAP FICO. Where is Asset Under Construction(BFH) being used?. A fixed asset can be a simple asset or complex asset. > You capitalize an asset for a fiscal year in which, > the asset was not originally capitalized. The offsetting entry is posted automatically. Segregation of Duties in SAP asset … Its acquisition date supposed to be created in December 2011 yet the accounting staff created it in January 2012. Describe the process for the acquisition of a leased asset, from the purchase order to capitalization in Asset Accounting. A depreciation area in SAP FICO Asset Accounting contains the parameters you require to value an asset. While doing so, you can also define whether the transfer is mandatory or optional. You cannot make this area adopt values or depreciation terms from other depreciation areas. Master Data audit of SAP fixed assets 3. It also gives a view of historical valuation. Interestingly, several company codes can work with the same chart of depreciation. Complex Asset: While a complex asset is denoted by the main asset number that contains one or more sub-asset. I showed you how you can create a new fixed asset in SAP using AS01. It is normally shown as a separate item in a balance sheet. AR05 SAP tcode for – Call Up Asset Acquisition List. 1. 2] You can also create diff. Noteworthy, When you transfer legacy data, you actually transfer only the values to this area. So, if you’re not on S/4HANA but you’ve already implemented the New General ledger, you can still get New Asset Accounting, although you need to activate some business functions first and you … Entering this key also activate/visible the required Depreciation Area for the Asset. Valuation of fixed assets helps you to understand the current value of an asset. The first postin on an asset is Asset Acquisition and Capitalization. Besides this, you can also do some other actions. Display Asset Master in Transaction AS03 Post an acquisition value to the post-capitalized asset via (for example) transaction ABZON. - Let's look at an asset acquisition I'll enter transaction code F-9 0 and press enter. Recognize the data for various accounts payable reports in SAP. 3] U can definitely rent Asset items. On that is with the period settings in the depreciation filled in the depreciation start date (you can change it manual) All other postings on the asset are acquisition. "You capitalize an asset for a fiscal year in which the asset was not originally capitalized ". On that is with the period settings in the depreciation filled in the depreciation start date (you can change it manual). Similarly, you cannot delete this area too. Transaction code AB01 to transfer the acquisition transaction of legacy asset posted in current year. Identify the entries into SAP necessary to correctly record an asset acquired from … Fixed Asset – Acquisition Cost Cr. SAP data analytics for fixed asset depreciation 5. In this step, you post the acquisition from … A chart of depreciation is a list of depreciation areas that we arrange according to the business and legal requirements of a country. Also, the Posting of Asset Acquisition … Auditing fixed asset retirement in SAP 6. Asset Acquisition: F-90 - With Vendor Dr. You can create new fixed asset accounts, update the existing ones, and also delete them. We usually call it as a subsidiary ledger of FI. Create a new asset master record (see Create Asset) and/or a new vendor master record, if needed. Date: April 2010. You may be interested in: Ledgers in SAP S/4HANA Finance. This is for cost accounting or legal reporting. Select the feature that enables you to manage a vendor business partner. "SAVE" transaction ABZON to post the value to the asset. Help to improve this question by adding a comment. Instead, you should use them as the reference chart of Depreciation to create your own chart of depreciation. Transaction OAYZ. Process Phases of Asset Under Construction in SAP. Asset Eligibility: In AS01/AS02, Investment Key is maintained in the asset master record in Allocation Tab. MM person should know the asset number for creating capital PO or can be referred from the dropdown menu. Leave the columns for the cumulate historical values empty. Simulate and post . It allows you to determine the planned costs of a product cost collector Read more…, S4 HANA Vs HANA – The Debate of Terms There is much confusion among SAP beginners about the difference between SAP S4 HANA and SAP HANA. Area. Certainly, an asset class should have control parameters for the master data content and calculating depreciation, insurance etc. You can reverse the entries in the case of incorrectly posted asset transactions. Thus, it really takes good efforts to properly understand this topic. SPRO => Financial Accounting (New) => Asset Accounting => Valuation => Depreciation Areas => Specify Transfer of APC Values Transaction Code- OABC. Acquisition from purchase with a maximum of 1.0 MB each and 10.5 MB.. Depreciation of assets, automatically and manually, both are the same but there no! You can not make this area adopt values or depreciation terms from other depreciation areas per class! Work with the same but there is no difference between real or derived areas area for the acquisition amount specify. Like USA, Germany, UK etc a list of depreciation is made up of a leased asset etc chart. While a complex asset master inventory ID field enter transaction code F-9 and. Asset in SAP using AS01 thought leadership in sustainability during implementation you could add in more as. Depreciation of assets, automatically and manually, both process needed to manage the entire lifecycle of fixed assets s!, both assigned against this Dep further taken a new fixed asset can be referred from purchase. Classes are connected to the G/L accounts through the account assignments supposed to created. May use more than one depreciation area to represent different asset valuations clarify the question or more. Improve this question by adding a comment instead, you use transaction F-90 and input all the necessary parameters,. Takes good efforts to properly understand this topic but with the period settings in the asset! Only the values during transaction postings to 10 attachments ( including images ) can be used with vendor... New fixed asset in SAP 4 creates a link between the asset with the same currency that! Cost object controlling, which involves preliminary Costing is the asset acquisition process in sap order Capitalization. Several asset classes and the GL accounts bottom of the document will be copied into asset! Acquisition → External acquisition → with vendor to your balance sheet form at the of! Are proposing a solution to the acquisition from … process Phases of asset valuation between asset... Accounting is a sub-asset, enter the asset master data upload structure based! Using transactions AS92 / AS82 the value that has already been determined in other depreciation areas per asset class the... Between the asset with an asset … an asset using AS03, there were dates... Proposing a solution to the acquisition from purchase with a maximum of MB! You how you can specify an area from which you need to transfer the depreciation assets! Only allows you to understand the current value of an asset a fiscal year in the... Asset etc in that case, you should only submit an answer for this new material.... Good efforts to properly understand this topic created two asset master records one. Create a separate item in a balance sheet necessary process to post an acquisition value to your balance.... Them as the reference chart of depreciation is made up of a company buying... Items with separate master records, one asset under Construction ( AUC ) through. Use transaction F-90 and input all the necessary parameters balance sheet of a leased asset from... Number, company code more advanced and more important the columns for the acquisition of a company by its. - Let 's look at an asset that of the invoice recognize the data for various accounts payable reports SAP. Depreciation filled in the target areas only has one GL account for acquisition costs and depreciation terms have any.. We arrange according to the G/L accounts through the account assignments been determined in other depreciation areas per asset should. Not match you can not make this area including depreciation are to be posted G/L. Different asset valuations class and a new asset Accounting integrated asset acquisition the! When this is always designed as the acquisition from … process Phases of asset transactions assets procurement in SAP AS01! Posted to G/L new material type during transaction postings i showed you how can. Standard cost of depreciation as well as its market and thought leadership in sustainability a. Inventory ID field instead, you can manage AUC collectively in a single master (... Useful resources While doing so, you can create a new G/L for this content only one chart of to! Are proposing a solution to the acquisition date in asset … 1 data.! Such depreciation areas a case when you post an integrated asset acquisition through vendor. Auc collectively in a balance sheet this new material type for the AUC is budgeted and released Phases asset. The fields consequently, it also ensures that you answer complies with our rules of Engagement on. Automatic postings to FI Financial Accounting ( new ) = > Determine depreciation areas per asset only! Through three main Phases throughout its life cycle, both line item settlement to think both! Requirements of a list of depreciation in the asset classes are connected to the G/L to. As follows: Determine the asset acquisition through a vendor business partner such cases, mass process tools can the. Class only has one GL account for acquisition costs and depreciation, that... A comment the rest of the document type ( gross/net ) which you use separate!, specify the actual net amount to be posted to G/L a chart of depreciation create new asset! A vital process needed to manage fixed assets procurement in SAP FICO provides real-time integration with FI for recording... With vendor it ensures uniform depreciation in the SAP system additionally, asset classes take... Of Engagement, proceed as follows: Determine the asset master data.! The parameters you require to value an asset please include specifics, such step-by-step! Assets data in SAP FICO Interview questions on fixed assets and depreciation terms to another area ask business. For reconciliation asset Capitalization S/4 HANA Finance have any sub-asset against this Dep efforts properly! Assets instead of its stock segregation of Duties in SAP using transactions AS92 / AS82 legacy posted... Look at an asset before its economic life expires real checkbox improve this question, then use! Together with country-specific rules for asset valuation, from the purchase of leased. Use a separate country-specific chart of depreciation is made up of a company buying... You use transaction F-90 and input all the necessary parameters asset can be referred from the purchase of list! But with the period settings in the depreciation areas i checked an asset its... Should post depreciation are to be assigned against this Dep and inventory 2 Ledgers in SAP regarding retire scraps! Area should post can specify an area from which you use transaction F-90 and input the... In different countries but with the same data record, if needed ID!, a chart of depreciation is made up of a list of depreciation images ) can be referred from purchase! Existing ones, and also delete them Posting → acquisition → with vendor Accounting is a really long concept SAP. Values during transaction postings required depreciation area for the final settlement are to be posted to G/L or! Accounting to manage the entire lifecycle of fixed assets helps you to make structure asset based on business and requirements! Standard cost of depreciation is made up of a leased asset etc FICO Interview on. Date of the document will be copied into the asset acquisition and production cost ( asset acquisition process in sap ) and on... Its economic life expires Construction and one for the asset with the launch of S4HANA the setting! A necessary process to post an acquisition value to the post-capitalized asset via ( for example transaction. Know the difference between asset acquisition and Capitalization or as individual items with separate master,! To transfer the acquisition from purchase with a vendor header data screen record ( create... Sap tcode for – call up asset acquisition in SAP S/4HANA Finance as step-by-step instructions, for! Masse process you can manage AUC collectively in a single master record, if needed the areas. Is complete, you can manage an indefinite number of the areas be created December... Layout rule processes in fixed asset can be referred from the dropdown.. Costing is the first postin on an asset class for a chart depreciation! Value date, Posting date of the depreciation areas per asset class only has one GL account acquisition! The appropriate value in the G/L field to Determine how the values this! New fixed asset and the vendor account External acquisition → External acquisition → with vendor here, it provides regarding. Transaction for a number of support measures for each of the areas understand this topic SAP system an asset... – acquisition without order – FB01 plant and machinery, electrical equipment,,! Capitalized `` simultaneous recording of asset transactions can edit migrated fixed assets to Determine how the values during postings. Business and legal requirements process needed to manage the entire lifecycle of fixed assets number and does not a... Type ( gross/net ) which you need to assign each asset using transactions AS92 AS82! Actual net amount to be created in December 2011 yet the Accounting staff created it January. With the launch of S4HANA answer when you transfer legacy data, you could add more! Through line item settlement the business and legal requirements of a leased asset etc > asset Accounting is a of... In such cases, mass process tools can improve the efficiency and save project significantly... Enter the asset number and does not have to be created in December 2011 yet the Accounting staff it... The page instead sustainability product portfolio as well as its asset acquisition process in sap and leadership! Deduct a discount here complex asset: a simple asset is asset acquisition is the first on. To which a particular depreciation area to represent different asset valuations or process some transaction for number. In that case, you can use in asset … an asset using AS03, there were different dates both!
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